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    考研英语:外刊阅读丨Branching out

    Source: 恒星英语学习网    2017-11-16  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

    本文选自一篇名为“Branching out”的文章。虽然考研英语较少触及政治类文章,但进一步了解美国联邦制和三权分立的内涵,积累一些美国法律和宪法等相关的知识是很有必要的。文章以移民案为背景,深层揭?#35835;?#32654;国各方政治力量的博弈。本文句式比较复杂,而且主体很多,各方的立场和较量不容易理清,要仔细辨别。

    阅读原文
    Ⅰ①America's framers designed separate institutions to make, enforce and interpret laws. ②But when Congress ceases to function as it should, the division of labour becomes blurry. ③Comprehensive legislation to deal with 11.3m undocumented immigrants has long proved elusive. ④In November 2014, a year and a half after a bipartisan Senate bill was rejected by the Republican leadership in the House of Representatives, Barack Obama picked up his pen and issued executive orders shielding about a third of illegal immigrants from deportation and allowing them to work. ⑤On April 18th, the Supreme Court considered whether his actions were legal.

    Ⅱ①At issue in United States v Texas is Mr Obama’s move granting “deferred action” to undocumented aliens whose children are American citizens or lawful permanent residents. ②The policy, known as Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA), aims to grant relief to those “who have become integrated members of American society”, and to keep families from being dispersed across international borders. ③The programme lifts the threat of removal from over 4m people but does not confer “any form of legal status” on its recipients.

    词汇短语
    1. framer['freɪmə] n. 制定者
    2. *blurry[ˈblɜ:ri] adj. 模糊的
    3. *undocumented [ˌʌn'dɒkjʊmentɪd] adj. 无正式文件的;非法入境
    4. *elusive[iˈlu:sɪv] adj. 难以捉摸的
    5. *bipartisan [ˌbaɪpɑ:tɪˈzæn] adj. 两党的
    6. shield [ʃi:ld] v.保护
    7. *deportation [ˌdi:pɔ:'teɪʃn] n.遣返;递解出境
    8. at issue 在争论中
    9. permanent [ˈpɜ:mənənt] adj. 永久的
    10. integrated [ˈɪntɪgreɪtɪd] adj. 整体的?#32531;托?#30340;
    11. disperse[dɪˈspɜ:s] v. 驱散
    12. confer [kənˈfɜ:(r)] v. 授予;给予
    注:标*的为超纲词

    翻译点评
    Ⅰ①America's framers designed separate institutions to make, enforce and interpret laws. ②But when Congress ceases to function as it should, the division of labour becomes blurry. ③Comprehensive legislation to deal with 11.3m undocumented immigrants has long proved elusive. ④In November 2014, a year and a half after a bipartisan Senate bill was rejected by the Republican leadership in the House of Representatives, Barack Obama picked up his pen and issued executive orders shielding about a third of illegal immigrants from deportation and allowing them to work. ⑤On April 18th, the Supreme Court considered whether his actions were legal.

    翻译:当初,美国的国父们设立了不同的机构, 分别享有立法权,执法权,释法权。但是当国会不再发挥其应有的功能,这种分工就变得模糊了。旨在解决1300万无证件移民问题的综合法案一直难以捉摸。2014年11月,美国总统奥巴马签署了行政命令,让三分之一的非法移民免于被遣返的命运,并且可以留美工作。这距离上次共和党领导人在众议院上否决了两党的?#25105;?#38498;法案过去了1年半的时间。今年4月18日,美国最高法院就此案开庭,决定奥巴马的命令是否合法。

    点评:本文一共有六段,可以清晰地分为三个层次。段Ⅰ为第一层次,简要的介绍了案件的背景。段Ⅱ-Ⅴ是第二层次,详细介绍各方力量的观点交锋。段Ⅵ是第三个层次,?#24471;?#20316;者对结局的分析和猜测。段Ⅰ引出文章话题。①②句开篇指出美国三权分立制度出现了分工模糊的问题。从时间上看,①句描述过去,②句描述现在,形成很明显的对比。③④⑤句?#35789;?#38388;顺序简要交代了“移民暂缓遣返”案的发展经过,以此为例,?#24471;?#24320;篇指出的职权划分模糊的问题。这里展现了多方力量,联邦政府v地方政府;民主党v共和党;政府v 法院。

    Ⅱ①At issue in United States v Texas is Mr Obama’s move granting “deferred action” to undocumented aliens whose children are American citizens or lawful permanent residents. ②The policy, known as Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA), aims to grant relief to those “who have become integrated members of American society”, and to keep families from being dispersed across international borders. ③The programme lifts the threat of removal from over 4m people but does not confer “any form of legal status” on its recipients.

    翻译:联邦政府对德克萨斯州案的争论焦点在于,奥巴马同意了“拥有美国公民或拥有永久合法居住身份的父母暂缓遣返”(DAPA)。 这项法令旨在让“融入美国社会的成员”放下心来,不用遭受和家人异国分隔的痛苦。这项命令让400万人免除离开美国的危险,但是并不授予他们“任何形式的法律地位”。

    点评:段Ⅱ承接上文指出,之所以联邦政府和德克萨斯州在最高法院对簿公堂,是因为奥巴马总统签署的一项“非法移民暂缓遣返令”(DAPA)。随后②③句具体介绍DAPA的内容和目的。


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